Help us improve www products. Sign up to take part. A Nature Research Journal. The gut microbiome has been com to host obesity; however, sex-specific associations between microbiome and fat distribution are not well understood. Here we show sex-specific microbiome signatures contributing to obesity despite both sexes having similar gut microbiome characteristics, including overall com and diversity.
Our comparisons of the taxa associated with the android fat ratio in men and women found that there is no widespread species-level overlap. We did observe overlap between the sexes at the genus and family levels in the gut www, such as Holdemanella and Gemmiger ; however, they had opposite correlations with fat distribution in men and women.
Our findings support a role for fat distribution in sex-specific fat with the composition of the microbiome. Our results suggest that studies of the gut microbiome and abdominal obesity-related disease outcomes should account for sex-specific differences.
Studies have associated the gut microbiome with the host obesity, however, little is known about how t girl fuckin girl sex modulate the association between gut microbiome and fat distribution. As men on average have lower percentages of total body fat but are more susceptible to abdominal adiposity than women 345we consider sex as a pivotal factor to further the understanding of the relationship between the gut microbiome and fat distribution.
Studies revealed that the microbial transplantation from obese to lean mice resulted in significant weight gain 89. The findings suggested certain microbes were directly responsible for the host obesity and enabled the weight gain in lean mice.
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Studies involving human subjects homemade dogging tubes indicated that the obese and the lean adults had different microbiota properties: Further, studies fat hypothesized that the gut microbiota can potentially differ in men and women, due to the influence of the overall obesity These observations in both animal and human studies confirmed the association between the gut microbiome and obesity.
Moreover, sex distribution, independent from total adiposity, has been well recognized as a major predictor of cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes 14 Our study concerns the sex-specific associations between the gut microbiome and abdominal obesity among the natural population using high-precision fat distribution measurements. In this study, we hypothesize that the gut microbiome is not only associated anal sex yoga pants girl teen the overall obesity, but also the fat distribution.
Since men and women differ in both total body fat proportion and distribution, we further hypothesize that there are sex-specific microbiome signatures associated with the fat distribution in men and women. Such microbial signatures have not been investigated to date. To test these hypotheses, we adopted body composition com from dual x-ray absorptiometry DXAand the gut microbiome information from 16s rRNA sequencing.
The findings suggest there could be sex-specific microbiome signature corresponding to sex-specific fat distribution. The participants of this microbiome study fat from the same sub-district, different households of the WELL-China study.
Ten individuals did not have DXA assessment, did not provide stool samples, or had missing values on covariates were excluded www the study, leaving for the final analysis. The overall mean age is 51 years for both sexes. For each sex, samples were divided into four quartiles according to the measured android and gynoid fat ratio.
The associated intervals of female android and gynoid fat ratio were 6. The intervals of male android and gynoid com ratio were 9. The microbiome tertiles were created using the sum of the taxon abundance of each subject. We compared these tertiles with the ones created using the total number of species of each subject. Sex two tertiles are very consistent. Therefore, here we use the abundance tertiles to reflect both the overall microbiome abundance and diversity.
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Stratified by sex, four heat maps were created to summarize the unadjusted association between microbiome tertiles and android or gynoid fat ratio. The top bar color-coded the fat ratio quartiles in male and female participants. The second bar is the microbiome tertiles, with the first tertile as the least diverse and abundant group, the third as the highest.
Subjects were ordered primarily by the tertiles, then by their fat ratio quartiles. Thus, the two bars together showed how www the four fat ratio quartiles form each microbiome tertile. Sex rows of the heat maps were the top 50 abundant species ranked high-to-low from bottom up, and the color gradience from white to red indicated the www abundance of every species for each subject.
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As shown in Fig. The association of microbiome abundance and fat ratio. This figure shows the global relationship between microbiome abundance and fat distribution in men and women. The top bar indicates the distribution of android and gynoid fat ratios within each microbiome abundance www. The blue gradient from nude turned vampire woman to dark encode the quartiles of the fat ratio from the lowest to the highest.
The second bar represents the microbiome abundance tertiles. From light to dark purple, it indicates the lowest to the highest microbiome abundance tertiles. They compose the rows of the heatmap. Each column represents one sample.
Panels ab show the relationships between microbiome abundance and android fat ratio in women and man, respectively.
Sex-specific association between gut microbiome and fat distribution | Nature Communications
Similarly, panels cd show the associations between microbiome abundance with gynoid fat ratio in women and men. In the female subjects, the second microbiome tertile has the least subjects from the highest android fat ratio group. However, in male subjects, there was a clear increasing trend in gynoid fat ratio as fat microbiome abundance and diversity increased.
Wald tests were performed on taxa in the female samples and in the male samples. These two models tested android fat ratio as the sex exposure at two-sided significance value of fat. The standard deviations of android fat ratio were 1. The first column was the taxa ID, which was a unique ID generated to differentiate different species within the same genus. The second column sex the family level information, the third column indicated the genus.
The dictionary mapping taxa ID back to the original sequences was provided in the Supplementary Com Data. In the female sample, the model did not provide enough evidence of com taxon that was positively associated with android fat ratio. Four taxa from three www in male subjects resulted having positive associations com android fat ratio.
Bacteroides from Bacteroidaceae family and Holdemanella from Erysipelotrichaceae family had effect sizes larger than 9. This indicated with one-standard deviation increase of android fat sex, these two taxa abundance increased at least 2 9 times. Comparing the male and female results, there is apparently a sex difference in the pattern of the positive association between microbiome and android fat ratio.
One taxon from the ErysipelotrichaceaeHoldemanella genus showed significant negative association with android fat ratio in miley cyrus fully exposed female sample.
Notably, Holdemanella genus was both positively associated with android fat ratio in male and negatively associated in female, however, two fat species from this genus were responsible for fat observed effects. In the male sample, four taxa from three families showed significant negative associations with android fat ratio. Among the male and female taxa that were negatively associated with android fat ratio, no overlap at either genus or family level was observed.